Hamilton of Cadzow (later of Hamilton)

to the end of the 16th Century

The early records of the Hamiltons of Cadzow are incomplete, many having been stolen or destroyed during Scotland's struggle for independence, and some of the uncertain relationships between known members of the family may never be resolved, the difficulties of their identification aggravated by the flexibility practised in those early days in the choice of surnames adopted from lands owned by a family, sometimes later discarded, and then, as here, eventually resumed. Heraldic analysis tends to confirm what marriage alliances suggest: that the Beaumont Earls of Leicester, the Umfreville Earls of Angus, and those Hamiltons who held Hambleton in Leicestershire and were later granted the royal barony of Cadzow (renamed Hamilton in the 15th century) in Lanark, belong to the same family group (which probably first came into England from the Seine valley in France, to which they may have migrated from Hainault in the south of what is now Belgium).


The Heir Male of the Hamiltons is James Hamilton, 5th Duke of Abercorn in the Peerage of Ireland, 6th Marquess of Abercorn in the Peerage of Great Britain, and 14th Earl of Abercorn in the Peerage of Scotland. He was born 4 July 1934, educated at Eton and the Royal Agricultural College at Cirencester, and served as a Captain in the Grenadier Guards. He was MP for Fermanagh and South Tyrone from 1964 to 1970 as an Ulster Unionist, and is Lord Lieutenant for County Tyrone. In 1966 he married Alexandra Anastasia, elder daughter of Lt Col Harold Pedro Joseph Phillips, FRGS, Coldstream Guards, by Georgina, daughter of Sir Harold Wernher, Bt. They have two sons, James Harold Charles Hamilton, Viscount Strabane, born 1969, and Lord Nicholas Edward Claud Hamilton, born 1979, and one daughter, Lady Sophia Alexandra Hamilton, born 1973.

Ancestry: The first of the Scottish family of Hamilton on record is Gilbert de Hameldun, a witness to a charter confirming the gift of the church at Cragyn to the Abbey of Paisley in 1272. He may have been, but possibly may have been confused with, Gilbert de Beaumont alias de Hamildon (arguably the son of Gilbert de Umfraville, Earl of Angus [in right of his 2nd wife], by his 1st wife Theophania), the son of Richard, Lord of Prudhoe, the son of Odinel de Umfreville, builder of Prudhoe Castle and a notable warrior in the border wars), who is reported to have m 1st Isabel, dtr of Thomas Randolph, Lord of Strathdon, by a half-sister of Robert I possibly named Isabel, and who m 2nd ante 1296 Willelma dtr of Sir William "Longleg" Douglas, 3rd Lord of Douglas, widow of William Galbraith of that Ilk. The son of Gilbert de Hamildon by Isabel was:

Walter fitz Gilbert, featured on the Ragman Rolls in 1292 and 1296 as de Hamildon and de Homildon, and elsewhere as de Hambleton, witnessed a Stewart charter to Paisley Abbey 1294 as Walterus filius Gilberti, tenant in the royal barony of Cadzow, received grants of Dalserf (previously held by his stepmother) and later of the barony of Kinneil. He was present at the battle of Halidon Hill 19 July 1333 and died before 1336 having m 1st Helen, by whom he had issue not now known; and m 2nd Mary dtr of Sir Adam Gordon of Gordon by whom he had issue:
..A1 David fitz Walter fitz Gilbert, his heir [see below]
..A2 John fitz Walter, ancestor of the Hamiltons of Innerwick and of the Hamilton Earls of Haddington, m Elizabeth dtr of Sir Alan Stewart of Dreghorn.

The heir:
David fitz Walter fitz Gilbert, Knight, granted the royal barony of Cadzow by David II, not known to have used the surname de Hamilton (or any other), fought at Halidon Hill and at Durham (where he was taken prisoner 1346), one of the Scottish magnates who arranged the settlement of the Crown on Robert III 1371, d between 1374 and 1378. He m Margaret dtr of William de Ross, 5th Earl of Ross by whom he had four sons:
..A1 David, his heir [see below]
..A2 John Hamilton of Fingaltoun, Knight, ancestor of the Hamiltons of Preston
..A3 Walter Hamilton, claimed as ancestor of the Hamiltons of Cambuskeith and Hamiltons of Sanquhar in Ayr
..A4 Alan Hamilton of Larbert, a substantial beneficiary of the 1420 Testament of Sir Robert Maxwell of Calderwood, whose dtr he may have married.
..a1. A daughter reported to have m Simon Roberton of Earnock.

The heir:
David fitz David fitz Walter fitz Gilbert de Hamyldon, baron of Cadzow, Knight, received further grants of land from the Crown in 1375 and 1378, and d ante 14 May 1392. He m Jonetta (who m 2nd Sir Alexander Stewart of Darnley) dtr and heiress of Sir William Keith of Galston by whom he had issue:
..A1 John, his heir [see below]
..A2 William Hamilton, Knight, granted the lands of Bathgate surrendered by his mother 1407, ancestor of the Hamiltons of Bathgate
..A3 Andrew Hamilton, granted the lands of Thulock, Bruntwood and others surrendered by his mother 1406, ancestor of the Hamiltons of Burntwood
..A4 George Hamilton, ancestor of the Hamiltons of Boreland (but that he is the son of David and Jonetta is speculative)
..A5 John secundus, (possibly known also as, or confused with, David) Hamilton , m a dtr and coheiress of Galbraith of that Ilk, ancestor of the Hamiltons of Bardowie
..a1. Elizabeth Hamilton, believed to have m as his 2nd wife Alexander Fraser, 1st of Philorth

The heir:
John Hamilton of Cadzow, Knight, witnessed a charter 14 May 1392, captured at sea en route to France by the English but freed 1396, captured by the English again and freed 28 Oct 1398. He m Janet (Jacoba) dtr of Sir James Douglas of Dalkeith and d ante 1410 having by her had issue:
..A1 James, his heir [see below]
..A2 David Hamilton, ancestor of the Hamiltons of Dalserf
..A3 Walter Hamilton, ancestor of the Hamiltons of Raploch
..a1. Katherine Hamilton (speculative, but reported by Alexander Nisbet to have) m Sir William Baillie

The heir:
James Hamilton of Cadzow, Knight, hostage in 1424 and 1426 for the ransom of King James I from his English captivity, m (contract 20 Oct 1422) Janet dtr of Sir Alexander Livingston of Callendar and d ante 1441 having by her had issue:
..A1 James, his heir [see below]
..A2 Alexander Hamilton of Shawfield, probable ancestor of the Hamiltons of Silvertonhill
..A3 John Hamilton, had charter of Whitecamp and Kirkhope 18 Jun 1449 and d ante 23 Oct 1455 leaving issue:
....B1 William Hamilton
....B2 Robert Hamilton
..A4 Gavin Hamilton, provost of the collegiate church of Bothwell, ancestor of the Hamiltons of Orbiston and father of a natural son:
....B1 Thomas Hamilton
..A5 James secundus Hamilton
..a1. Agnes Hamilton m Sir James Hamilton of Preston
..a2. Janet Hamilton m Sir John Chalmers of Gaidgirth
..a3. Euphame Hamilton (may be the Euphame Hamilton who m William Hamilton of Cander).

The heir:
James Hamilton of Cadzow, Knight, was created Lord Hamilton 28 June 1445 and surrendered all his lands and baronies for erection into a new lordship of Hamilton, the name used thereafter for the town of Cadzow. His loyalties lay initially with his Douglas kinsmen, with whose chief he visited Rome in 1450 and Canterbury in 1451, and with whom he joined in the league with the Earls of Crawford and Ross against James II, but he subsequently moved over to the King's side to help suppress their revolt. He was rewarded with the office of sheriff of Lanarkshire 1 July 1455, and on 23 October was granted a new charter of his lands and baronies. He m 1st (by dispensation of 2 Feb 1440/1) Euphemia, who d 1468, eldest dtr of Sir Patrick Graham and Eupheme, Countess of Strathern, and widow of Archibald, 5th Earl of Douglas, 2nd Duke of Touraine, and had issue:
..a1. Elizabeth Hamilton, m 1459 David Lindsay, 5th Earl of Crawford, later Duke of Montrose, but was divorced ante 1485. She m 2nd John Forrester of Niddrie and was divorced ante 1508. She was alive still in 1516.
Sir James, 1st Lord Hamilton, m 2nd 1474 Mary Stewart, Lady of Scotland (b 1452, d 1488), dtr of James II, sister of James III, and formerly wife of Thomas Boyd, Earl of Arran, bringing his descendants to within a heartbeat of the throne of Scotland, and d 6 Nov 1479 having had by her further issue legitimated by Papal dispensation 1476:
..A1 James, his heir [see below]
..a2. Elizabeth secundus Hamilton, m April 1494 as his 2nd wife Mathew Stewart (or Stuart), 11th (or 2nd) Earl of Lennox, and was alive still April 1531.
Lord Hamilton left illegitimate issue:
..A2 James Hamilton, alive in 1455, probably d ante 1473.
..A3 John Hamilton of Broomhill, son of Janet Calderwood, legitimated 1512-13, Sheriff-depute of Clydesdale, m Jonet (d March 1553) dtr of Robert Hamilton of Preston and dAugust 1526 leaving issue.
..A4 Patrick Hamilton of Kincavil, Knight, son of a dtr (d 1479) of Witherspoon of Brighous, legitimated 1512-13, Sheriff of Linlithgowshire, m Margaret illegitimate dtr of Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany, and was k at the "Cleanse the Causeway" skirmish between the Hamiltons and Douglases in the High Street of Edinburgh 30 April 1520 leaving issue.
..A5 David Hamilton, Bishop of Argyll and Abbot of Dryburgh, d1523 leaving issue:
....B1 James Hamilton

The heir:
James Hamilton, 2nd Lord Hamilton, b ca 1475, Privy Councillor, created Earl of Arran 11 Aug 1503, Admiral of the Scottish Fleet 1513, Lord of Regency under the Duke of Albany 1517, commanded the Royal army against the Earl of Lennox September 1526. He is supposed to have m 1st 1490 (he was 15 and the bride 13) Elizabeth, widow of Thomas Hay of Hoprew, Master of Yester, dtr of Alexander Home, 2nd Lord Home, and is believed to have divorced her subsequently in 1504 on the grounds that the Master, although believed to be dead, was actually alive at the critical time. (In fact, the Master had m in 1483 Elizabeth Borthwick, who was alive at the time of his death, so the grounds for the Hamilton divorce appear suspicious, even though it was confirmed four years later.) He then m Nov 1516 Janet, widow of Sir Robert Livingston of Easter Wemyss, dtr of Sir David Beaton of Creich. His known illegitimate issue were:
..A1 James Hamilton of Finnart, Knight, "the Bastard of Arran" (whose mother was Mary dtr of Boyd of Bonshaw) m Margaret Livingston of Easter Wemyss, dtr of his father's new wife Janet [see above], and administered her lands to great personal advantage, becoming baron of Ochiltree. He was the murderer of John Stuart, 12th (or, as sometimes numbered, 3rd) Earl of Lennox, he instigated the death of his cousin, Patrick Hamilton, the Abbot of Fearn who was burnt at the stake, and he was executed for high treason 16 August 1540. By his wife Margaret he had issue:
....B1 James Hamilton of Crawfurdjohn, Knight, ancestor of the Hamiltons of Gilkerscleugh
....b1. Agnes Hamilton, m as his 2nd wife James, 6th Lord Somerville
....b2 Grissel Hamilton m (contract 28 June 1547) as his 1st wife Andrew Leslie, Master and later 5th Earl of Rothes, and d ante 4 June 1575
By Mariota Stewart Sir James Hamilton of Finnart had three illegitimate sons (Andrew, James and Alexander), by Elizabeth Murray a son and a dtr (James secundus and Elizabeth), by Elizabeth Elphinston a dtr (Agnes), and in addition sired at least another son and three dtrs (Cuthbert, Elizabeth secundus, Grisel and Elizabeth tertius ).
..A2 John Hamilton, b 1512, Abbot of Paisley 1525, legitimated 20 June 1546, Lord High Treasurer 1545-54, Archbishop of St Andrews and Primate of All Scotland 1547, he was the principal opponent of John Knox after the murder of Cardinal Beaton and a leading supporter of Queen Mary. After accusations of complicity in the assassination of the Regent Moray he was on 7 April 1571 hanged, in his episcopal vestments, on the orders of the Regent Lennox. He cohabited with Grisel, formerly wife of James Hamilton of Stanehouse, Provost of Edinburgh, elder son of James Hamilton of Raploch, and dtr of Robert Sempill, 3rd Lord Sempill, and by her had issue:
....B1 William Hamilton, fiar of Torry, legitimated 9 October 1551, fought at Langsyde for Queen Mary, dsp 1571
....B2 John Hamilton of Drumry, legitimated 9 October 1551, ancestor of the Hamiltons of Blair, captured at the battle of Langsyde in support of Queen Mary 13 May 1568, m 1st (contract 7 May 1575) Agnes (d August 1587) dtr of John Menteith of Kers, and m 2nd Elizabeth Drummond widow of William Grahame of Panholes, and d March 1630 leaving issue by his 1st wife.
....B3 David Hamilton of Jackston, legitimated 20 April 1580.
....b1 Margaret Hamilton m (contract May 1571) Robert Bruce of Blairhill
....b2 Jeillis Hamilton, alive 1578
....b3 Helen Hamilton m John Walker, goldsmith in Edinburgh
....b4 Agnes Hamilton, mentioned in her brother's testament in 1630.
..A3 John Hamilton of Samuelston and Clydesdale, son of Elizabeth Lindsay, m Janet illegitimate dtr of Alexander, Lord Hume, and d ante 1558 leaving issue:
....B1 James Hamilton of Samuelston m 1st Jonet Wood and m 2nd Jonet dtr of Gilbert Seton, yr of Parbroath and d leaving issue by his 1st wife 4 sons and 2 dtrs, and by his 2nd wife 3 sons and 1 dtr.
....B2 John Hamilton, parson of Dunbar, m Christian Crawfurd and d September 1596.
....b1 Margaret Hamilton m 1st James Johnstone of that Ilk (d 1551), and m 2nd (contract 8 May 1552) David Douglas of Pittendrecht, later 7th Earl of Angus (d 1557), and m 3rd Patrick Whitelaw of that Ilk.
..A4 James Hamilton of Sprouston and St John's Chapel, son of Elizabeth Lindsay, m Marioun dtr of Patrick Hepburn of Fairnington and granddtr and heiress of Patrick Hepburn of Bolton, Master of Hailes, and had issue 6 sons and 1 dtr.
..A5 James Hamilton of Kinneil, Bishop of Argyll and Lismore, m Janet Murray and had issue three sons.
..a1. Anna Hamilton m20 December 1510 Hugh, 4th Lord Somerville, and d of smallpox 1516.
..a2. Margaret Hamilton m ante 1516 Andrew Stewart, Lord Avendale
..a3. Jean (Janet) Hamilton m Alexander Cunninghame, Master of Glencairn, later 5th Earl of Glencairn.
..a4. Isabella Hamilton m John Bannatyne of Corehouse and d ante January 1570-71.
..a5. Jean Hamilton m 1st David Boswell of Auchinleck, and m 2nd John Hamilton of Auchingemmill, and m 3rd John Crawfurd in Shaw.
..a6. Jean Hamilton m James, Master of Somerville, who m 2nd Agnes dtr of Sir James Hamilton of Finnart.
..a7. Elizabeth Hamilton m (contract 27 May 1543) Robert, Master of Sempill.
..a8. Janet (Jean) Hamilton, the subject of various reports that have her m to David Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh (Crawfurd's Peerage), to John Wemyss (Douglas Peerage), and to William Stewart (Riddell's Scottish Peerages). The 1st Earl of Arran d ante 22 July 1529 having had issue by his wife Janet, who d ca 1522, two sons and one dtr:
..A6 James, his heir [see below]
..A7 Gavin Hamilton, d ante 1545 leaving issue an illegitimate son:
....B1 Gavin Hamilton, legitimated 21 February 1553-54.
..a9. Helen Hamilton of Menstrie m ante 26 Mar 1529 as his 1st wife Archibald Campbell, 4th Earl of Argyll

The heir:
James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran, chosen as Regent of Scotland following the death of James V, and declared on 13 Mar 1542/3 Heir Presumptive of the Crown. During the subsequent religious troubles he attempted to compromise but finally favoured the Reformers. For his services in promoting the marriage of Queen Mary to the Dauphin of France he was created Duc de Châtelherault. In 1554 he resigned the Regency to Marie de Guise-Lorraine, the Queen-Mother, and in 1565, after opposing the marriage of the widowed Queen Mary to Henry Stuart (known to the English as Lord Darnley, but to the Scots in sequence as Master of Lennox, Duke of Albany and King Henry), he went abroad for four years, returning to oppose the Regency of the Earl of Moray (assassinated by James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh 1569/70) and then of the Earl of Lennox (killed by the Hamiltons 1571), but submitting finally on 15 Feb 1572/3 to the 4th Earl of Morton, ("the grimmest of that grim race from which he sprung"), the husband of his wife's sister Elizabeth, who lost the Regency in 1578 and was executed 1581). Much of his life was strongly influenced by his nearness in blood to the Queen, the strength that gave to the candidature of his sons for the rôle of Consort and the power of King, and the temptation that might arise when only an infant was between his family "and home" (as it was once said aloud). He m Sep 1532 Margaret, eldest dtr of James Douglas, 3rd Earl of Morton, by Catherine Stewart, illegitimate dtr of James IV, and d 22 Jan 1574/5 having had issue:
..A1 James Hamilton, 3rd Earl of Arran, b1537-8, Commander of the Scots Guards in France, 1550-7, proposed by the Lords of the Congregation as husband for Queen Elizabeth of England 1560, and proposed himself as husband for Mary, Queen of Scots, 1561. Soon thereafter, in 1562, he was judged insane, although he was probably only scatterbrained, and in this state he resigned the Earldom of Arran to James Stewart of Bothwellhaugh, 1581, but this was reduced by the Court of Session in 1586 "as the act of a person incompetent in consequence of insanity," whereby he was restored to his honours. He dsp Mar 1609, his titles passing to the heirs of his brother John.
..A2 Gavin Hamilton, d young ante August 1547
..A3 John Hamilton, Commendator of Arbroath, created Marquess of Hamilton 17 Apr 1599, ancestor of the Dukes of Hamilton

John Hamilton, Lord of Arbroath
..A4 David Hamilton of Grange, b circa 1542, may have man illegitimate dtr of the Earl of Cassilis andd March 1611 leaving two illegitimate young children of whom nothing more is known.
..A5 Claud Hamilton, Commendator of Paisley, created Lord Paisley 29 July 1587, ancestor of the Dukes of Abercorn
Claud Hamilton, Lord of Paisley
..a1. Barbara Hamilton, m 1st ca 1546 Alexander Gordon, eldest son of 4th Earl of Huntly, who dsp ante 18 June 1553, and m 2nd 1553 James Fleming, 4th Lord Fleming, Chamberlain of Scotland (who dspm 15 Dec 1558 aged 23) and d ante 26 November 1577
..a2. Jean Hamilton, m 13 Feb 1554/5 as his 1st wife Hugh Montgomery, 3rd Earl of Eglinton, and divorced in 1562 on grounds of consanguinity
..a3. Anne Hamilton, m (contract 12 August 1558) George Gordon, 5th Earl of Huntly, d 9 Oct 1576. She was still alive 17 Apr 1574.

The Hamilton Temptation

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